Reading Process Classroom Environment Instructional Decision Making Sample Lessons by Level

(Terms are hyperlinked from the Book and Reader Characteristics Charts for each Guided Reading Module)

Term Meaning
analogies linking how an unknown word resembles a known word to help figure out what the unknown word is
(e.g., if you know some, you can read or write come)
clause a group of related words with a subject and a verb
(e.g., because he came to school)
compound sentences a sentence with at least two independent clauses
(e.g., I went to school and I came home.)
comprehension strategies ways readers think while they read in order to understand
(e.g., monitoring, asking questions, inferring, visualizing, determining importance, summarizing)
concepts about print understandings about how written language is set up that are necessary for reading
(e.g., English is read left to right and top to bottom of the page, what is a letter, a word)
cross-checking using multiple sources of information to solve problems in reading
(e.g., checking how a word looks with what would make sense)
directionality the orientation of how we read and write print
(in English, from left to right)
flexibility, flexible in beginning reading, the ability to use a variety of strategies to solve words, choosing what works best in the particular situation
(e.g., using word parts or analogies or trying different sounds for a letter or group of letters)
fluency reading continuous text with good phrasing, intonation, appropriate pauses, and at a rate that carries the reader through the text with understanding and momentum
genres categories of written text based on style, form, or content
(e.g., poetry, folktales, literary nonfiction, biography, historical fiction, science fiction, etc.)
high-frequency words words that appear often in written text
(e.g., a, the, can, where)
inferential (story line) the story needs to be interpreted to be understood, rather than being only a literal statement of fact or events.
inflectional endings a suffix added to a based word that shows tense, plurality, or comparison
(e.g., -ed in wanted, -s in farms, -er in stronger)
initial reading the first time reading a particular text
intonation how the voice rises and falls while speaking (or reading) to convey meaning
language structures ways words are put together that are grammatically correct. They may or may not be similar to oral language
(e.g., ”I can run,” “Away we go!”)
letter-sound relationships the connection between a letter and the sound that the letter makes when read
literary language words and phrases used in literature that are not part of every-day oral language
(e.g., “Once upon a time”)
meaning, structure,
and visual information
the three sources of information that children are taught to use together to read independently
(“Does it make sense? Does it sound right? Does it look right?)
multi-syllabic words words with more than one syllable
(e.g., com-part-ment)
on the run with reference to reading, being able to solve problems quickly without stopping to work them out.
one-to-one matching reader’s ability to match one spoken word with one printed word while reading or writing
patterned text,
language patterns,
repetitive language patterns
text with the same or similar phrase or sentence repeated multiple times
(e.g., “I can jump, I can swim, I can eat” or “Then ___ little bears were left at home”)
phrasing grouping of words while reading to express meaning, rather than reading “word by word” with the same pause between every word
point of error the place in the text where a reader makes an error
possessives grammatical indication of ownership
(e.g., the child’s toy)
prepositional phrases phrases that begin with a preposition
(e.g., after the game, above the couch)
return sweep going back to the left on the next line after finishing the first line of text.
self-correct monitoring what doesn’t look right, sound right, or make sense in reading, and then solving the problem
self-monitoring checking whether reading or writing makes sense, looks right, and sounds right
sight vocabulary words known instantly by looking at them, without having to problem solve
text features additions to the continuous text that support meaning
(e.g., headings, captions, diagrams, illustrations, glossary, table of contents)
visual analysis solving words using knowledge of how works look, including the groups and patterns of the letters in the word

Definitions adapted from Gay Su Pinnell and Irene C. Fountas. 2011. The Continuum of Literacy Learning Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, and a variety of online resources