Instructional Decision-Making Before Reading During/After Reading Letter/Word Work Reading/Writing Connections
  • Fried, M. D. (2013). Activating teaching: Using running records to inform teaching decisions. The Journal of Reading Recovery Fall 2013.

  • The “Quality Check” Mary Fried developed as a supplemental aid for Reading Recovery Teachers is explained in this article and formed the basis of the “Additional Analysis of Running Records for Classroom Teachers” explored in this Section.
  • Estice, R.M. (1997). Using patterns of responding to “follow the child”.  The Running Record 9(2).
    • Includes examples that could be used for practice in analyzing running records to make decisions about prompts and teaching points.
  • McGee, L. M., Kim, H., Nelson, K. S., and Fried, M. D. (2011) Changes over time in first graders’ strategic use of information at point of difficulty in reading.  Reading Research Quarterly* 50(3), 263-291.
    • Details the research study that was the basis of Fried’s work above.


Overall References containing useful information across sections of this module:

  • Clay, M.M. (1991). Becoming literate: The construction of inner control. Auckland, New Zealand: Heinemann.
  • Fountas, I.C. & Pinnell, G.S. (2016) Guided Reading, Second Edition: Responsive teaching across the grades. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  • Gibson, S.A. & Moss, B. (2016). Every young child a reader: Using Marie Clay’s key concepts for classroom instruction.  New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
  • Johnson, P. (2006). One child at a time: Making the most of your time with struggling readers K-6. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.
  • Pinnell, G.S. & Fountas, I.C. (2009). When readers struggle: teaching that works. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
    • Specific chapters of this resource are cited in each section of this module.
  • Pinnell, G.S. & Fountas, I.C. (2011). The continuum of literacy learning, Grades PreK-8: A guide to teaching. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
  • Richardson, J. (2016). The next step forward in guided reading: Grades K-8. New York, NY: Scholastic.


*Articles from The Reading Teacher and Reading Research Quarterly are accessible online with a subscription to the journals.