Instructional Decision-Making Before Reading During/After Reading Letter/Word Work Reading/Writing Connections

Facilitator Notes

To teach struggling beginning readers, we need to know them well as readers. Examining multiple running records over time helps us notice patterns in the children’s responses. These patterns in turn help us decide what to emphasize in our teaching, and which books to choose to support the instructional needs. Beyond examining how children use meaning, structure, and visual sources of information while reading (See Guided Reading Module 1), we can further analyze their running records using the “Additional Considerations” chart*. This chart will guide us in analyzing three important areas related to a child’s developing system of processing text: Tolds from the teacher, High Frequency Words, and Monitoring.

*The chart is an adaptation for classroom teachers based on the research study by Lea McGee and Mary Fried, Development of Children’s Problem-Solving Activities at Point of Difficulty, presented at the 2011 National Reading Recovery & K-6 Literacy Conference. See Fried, M., Using Running Records to Inform Teaching Decisions (2013). The Journal of Reading Recovery, 13(1), 5-15.

Example 1: Watch and Discuss

Example 2: Try It

EXAMPLE 1: Watch and Discuss

In Example 1, Dr. CC Bates (Associate Professor, Literacy Education, Clemson University, and Director, Reading Recovery and Early Learning Training Center for South Carolina), and Maryann McBride (Reading Recovery Teacher Leader, Clemson University), talk through how they use each step of the chart to gain more insight about teaching a first grader who has progressed through Reading Recovery to reading at a level 10/11 at Chastain Road Elementary School, Liberty, SC (Pickens County School District).

Supporting Documents: Example 1 Additional Considerations Chart, Example 1 Running Records, Example 1 Book Texts

STEP 1: TOLDS (The teacher tells the child the word.)

What can we learn about next steps for a student by categorizing the types of Tolds given on his running record?

EX tolds 1

Video:  Categorizing Tolds; Transcript
Video: Types of Words Told; Transcript
CC Bates and Maryann McBride

How can we teach children to stop appealing or waiting for the teacher when they are unsure of a word? 

EX1 Tolds 2

Video:  Teaching Children to Help Themselves;  Transcript
CC Bates and Maryann McBride

Why should we NOT give Tolds that are preemptive (before the child reads the word) or corrective (immediately after the child reads the word)?  

ex 3 tolds

Video:  Preemptive and Corrective Tolds;  Transcript
CC Bates and Maryann McBride

STEP 2: HIGH FREQUENCY WORDS

Why is it important to recognize when children’s errors or self-corrections occur often on high frequency words?

EX1 HF1

Video: Charting High Frequency Words; Transcript
CC Bates and Maryann McBride

What can we learn about next steps for a student by analyzing his errors and self-corrections on high frequency words?

EX1 HF2 Video: Analyzing High Frequency Words; Transcript
CC Bates and Maryann McBride

How does the teacher support the child’s need to firm up his high frequency words? 

EX1 HF3

Video: Supporting High Frequency Word RecognitionTranscript
CC Bates and Maryann McBride

STEP 3: MONITORING (noticing when you’re right or wrong in your own reading)

How do children show us they are monitoring their reading? What are signs that they are not monitoring? 

EX1 Monitor1

Video: Signs of Monitoring; Transcript
Video: Categorizing Monitoring; Transcript
CC Bates and Maryann McBride

What can we learn about next steps for a student by analyzing examples of his monitoring?  

EX1 Monitor2

Video: Analyzing Monitoring;  Transcript
CC Bates and Maryann McBride

How do we encourage children to monitor their reading?  How do we hinder their monitoring?

EX 1 Monitor3

Video: Supporting Monitoring;   Transcript
CC Bates and Maryann McBride

CONCLUSION: USING THE ANALYSIS

Supporting Documents: Summary and Recommendations (page 3 of Additional Considerations Chart)

How does the analysis of Tolds, High Frequency Words, and Monitoring help a teacher plan next steps for a struggling reader?

Video: Summarizing the Analysis;  Transcript
CC Bates and Maryann McBride

EXAMPLE 2:  Try It!

Facilitator Notes

BEFORE viewing the video clips:

  1. Examine the book texts and running records for a first grader reading at a level 4. Use the blank Additional Considerations Chart to record the Tolds, High Frequency Words, and Monitoring for each category of the chart, and summarize your findings on page 3.
  2. Compare your observations with those on the chart completed by Maryann McBride, Reading Recovery Teacher Leader, and Alana Gray, Reading Recovery Teacher at Mauldin Elementary School, Simpsonville, SC (Greenville 1 School District).

 

Supporting Documents:  Example 2 book texts, Example 2 running records, blank Additional Considerations Chart, Example 2 Completed Additional Considerations Chart

 


Step 1: What can we learn about next steps for the student from his Tolds?  

Video:  Analyzing Tolds; Transcript
Maryann McBride and Alana Gray,
Mauldin Elementary School


Step 2: What can we learn about next steps for the student from his errors and self-corrections on high frequency words?   

Video:  Analyzing High Frequency Words; Transcript
Maryann McBride and Alana Gray,
Mauldin Elementary School


Step 3: What can we learn about next steps for the student from his monitoring?    

Video: Analyzing Monitoring;   Transcript
Maryann McBride and Alana Gray,
Mauldin Elementary School

CONCLUSION: USING THE ANALYSIS

Supporting Documents: Summary and Recommendations (page 3 of Example 2 Additional Considerations Chart)

How does the analysis of Tolds, High Frequency Words, and Monitoring help a teacher plan next steps for a struggling reader?

Video: Using the Analysis to Choose a New Book;  Transcript
Maryann McBride and Alana Gray,
Mauldin Elementary School