Book Leveling System2
Book Characteristics3
Reader Behaviors to Support4
  • Using basic concepts about print: moving through text from front to back, left to right, and return sweep
  • One-to-one matching of spoken word with written word by pointing at each word as it is said
  • Paying attention to print – noticing some features of letters and words
  • Remembering and using repetitive language patterns
  • Recognizing some high-frequency words
  • Recognizing that the pictures help to explain the text
  • Using knowledge of language structures as a source of information
  • Predicting what makes sense
  • Self-monitoring: checking accuracy of reading by making a one-to-one match with the words, using known words, or recognizing when meaning doesn’t make sense or language structure doesn’t sound right.


1 Information for this table is mainly derived from Fountas,I. and G.S. Pinnell. 1996. Guided Reading, Good First Teaching for All Children. Portsmouth, N.H. Heinemann. See especially Chapter 10.
2 RR = Reading Recovery, F&P = Fountas and Pinnell, DRA = Developmental Reading Assessment
3 Book Characteristics refer to general characteristics of texts; every book will not include every characteristic listed. Please note that book levels overlap in different levelling systems.
4 Reader Behaviors to Support will develop over the specified range of levels.